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How to use this website

Welcome to the TAF and TIp website for helping you with the introduction, management and monitoring Water, Sanitation and Hygiene technology introduction.  The 10 minute videos below give a short introduction to how to use this website (the sound quality is not great but we're working on this, in the meantime: turn up the volume)

Introduction to this website


How to add a TAF case study


How to use the TAF and TIP

TAP-TIP process - click to zoom


Welcome to the Technology Applicability Framework (TAF) and Technology Introduction Process (TIP) for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) technologies.

On the this website you will find manuals and tools to enable you to run the process of introducing a WASH technology into a new country or region, or to evaluate the success of an existing WASH technology.

The figure (right - click to enlarge) shows the key steps in the TAF and TIP processes. Separate manuals are available for each component.

The TAF guides users through a transparent stepwise process. Data from the field is also needed to apply the TAF. The results are generated through a workshop-based process that involves all relevant stakeholders.

The TIP is guideline to help mobilise and organise the various actors whose cooperation is needed for a successful WASH technology introduction. 

During the WASHTech project, TIP guidelines were adapted to the institutional contexts of the three pilot countries: Burkina Faso, Ghana and Uganda.

Webinar Recording from 12 March 2014 -Introduction to the TAF and experiences from Ghana and Nicaragua


Technology Applicability Framework (TAF) - Getting Started

>> CLICK HERE to download the manual to find out more and to get started.

What is the TAF for?

The Technology Applicability Framework (TAF) is a decision support tool on the applicability, scalability and sustainability of a specific WASH technology to provide lasting services in a specific context and on the readiness for its introduction. The TAF can be used to

  • start discussion, documentation and sharing experiences about a WASH technology and approaches to scale up this technology
  • assess the potential of a specific technology with respect to applicability, scalability, sustainability and uptake in a specific context,
  • assess readiness of a sector to scale up this technology including identification of potential measures for improving uptake,
  • monitor performance of technology and its introduction process.

When to apply the TAF?

The TAF should be applied when a technology is being piloted. It can also be used to support monitoring and evaluation of progress and performance of technology introduction processes.

How does it work?

The TAF is designed as a participatory tool. It is applied using a stepwise process. It uses specific questionnaires for screening and field questionnaires for the assessment. Information needed are collected through desk studies and field visits. All relevant actors are involved in the collection of data and in the generation and discussion of results. This allows all actors, including representatives from national and local government and users of the technology such as communities, to bring in their perspectives and views and to hear the opinions of other actors.

Where are the limits?

The TAF is designed to assess a single WASH technology (e.g. a pump or a toilet design) which is - or will be - used to provide WASH services in a district or region. The TAF can also be used to assess complex systems such as a piped supply with tanks, pipes and taps. However, prior to the TAF assessment of a system, the boundaries for the assessment have to be defined. Field visits are used to verify the context and boundaries of each TAF application. The TAF is designed as an assessment tool for a single WASH technology in a specific context, not as a selection tool which selects between various technologies.

Four steps in the TAF assessment

The assessment within the TAF follows a procedure with four steps:
The TAF process starts with a screening in step (1). The screening focuses on two key questions:

  1. Is there a need for this technology?
  2. Is the technology at all feasible in this region?

If the screening is positive, the technology will be comprehensively assessed in step (2).
In step (3) the results are collected and presented.
In step (4) all results are comprehensively interpreted.

Technology Introduction Process (TIP) - Getting Started

>> CLICK HERE to download and read the Framework for Technology Introduction Process

The Technology Introduction Process (TIP) is a guide for introducing effective technologies for sustainable WASH services. The TIP provides 10 building blocks which are relevant to develop and manage a technology introduction process.

In the TIP the uptake of WASH technologies is conceptually described in three phases which can be distinguished based on their key characteristics with respect e.g. to level of investments needed, in revenue, in impacts. The three phases include:

  • Invention, with subphases “Piloting” and “Launching”
  • Tipping Point
  • Uptake, Operation and Service

The application of the TIP is designed as a stepwise process following the phases of the introduction process. The process should be managed as a process and be embedded in a series of workshops. The flexible structure of the proposed process in the TIP allows application of the building blocks also to situations, where in countries there are already existing or partly existing guidelines. In an ideal case, a holistic assessment of the applicability of that technology is done at the very beginning of the process, based on the TAF. The results of the TAF should be considered for the design of the process, however they give also relevant information for all other phase of the introduction process.

In combination the TAF and the TIP can be used to design the introduction process, to monitor the uptake and to identify specific areas for mitigation measures to improve performance of the technology or of the introduction process, e.g. to verify the choice of the cost model.



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